Teasel gourd

Teasel gourd:
Teasel gourd is such kind of expensive crop as the type of pumpkin. It can be stored for a long time in its normal condition. A sufficient quantity of teasel gourd is exported to the Middle East and United Kingdom every year. Cultivation of teasel gourd spreads in different places of Bangladesh in the recent years.
Climate, Land and Soil :
Warm and moist climate is suitable for teasel gourd cultivation. It can be grown in semi-shadowed place, but accretes better in fully sunny place.  It is grown only in the month September to November in Bangladesh. The land which is free from flood and well managed for water expulsion is convenient for teasel gourd cultivation. Double-ash and etela typed soil is appropriate for teasel gourd cultivation. Acid soil is good for teasel gourd.
Varieties :
Asami, Monipuri, Mukundopuri and Modhupuri  are noticeable among the local varieties. The Asami types are tasty and round and short in shape. But Monipuris growth is better than other.
Life Line of Crop :
It needs about 200-270 days to get fulfilled production of teasel gourd.
Reproduction :
Teasel gourd reproduces in many ways such as radish, real seeds and cutting of tree trunk. Generally it reproduces with radish. It is very easy to spreads its parentage with radish. In this way it maintains all specialty of mother type.
Plants also can be prepared from real seeds but it has some disadvantages. Such as about 50% seeds don’t sprout and about 50% plants grow as male among the sprouted seeds.
New plants are prepared from cutting the tree trunk too.
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Quantity of Seeds :
It needs radish of seeds according to following table for teasel gourd cultivation.
Radish
150 kg/hector or 1600-2500 pcs radish/hector will be needed. Each radish needs 15-20 cm in height.
Number of radish
Female:  1440-2250 pcs/hector
    Male:  160-250 pcs/hector
Weight of radish
Female:  142.5 kg/hector
    Male:  7.5 kg/hector

Preparing Land and Planting Radish :
It needs to prepare bed and mada according to following table.
Size of bed
Breath
Length
45 cm
Depends on length of land
Size of drain
Breath
Deepness
30 cm
20 cm
Size of mada

45 x 45 x 45 cm
Number of rows in each bed

2
Distance
Rows to rows
Tree to tree
200-250 cm
200-250 cm
Number of mada in per hector
1600-2500 pcs

Number of tree
Female
Male
1440-2250 pcs
160-250 pcs (5-10% of number of total trees)

Cuttage

Cuttage is the process of propagating plants by the use of vegetative parts that, when placed under suitable conditions, will develop into completed plats. It differs from layerage  in that the parts used are detached from the parent plant before they have an opportunity to develops roots. Whit species of pl ants that strike roots readily, cottage is a cheap and convenient mode of  propagation. It is used extensively in the propagation of ornamental plants, including deciduous types, broad-leaved evergreens, and coniferous forms. Some frits, such as grapes and figs have been propagated in this manner since ancient time, and more recently there has been considerable progress in the rooting of other fruit plants, such as the Bruce plum. In the majority of cases, hover, the rooting of fruit-tree species is of more importance in the production of uniform stocks for budding of grafting.

Classes of Cuttings  
Plant parts used in making cuttings fall into four groups, roots, leaves, stems, and modified stems. Theoretically, all plants that have primary mortems Arte capable of being propagated by cutting. All plants cannot profitably be increased by this means, however and only practical experience has made it possible to distinguish between species that can be propagated form cutting and those that cannot.

Root Cuttings
As a rule, plants that naturally produce suckers freely can be propagated easily by root cuttings. Some species of plants that root rarely or not all from stem cutting can be reproduced by this means. Persimmon, pear, pecan, apple, and plum are of this calls. They may be stared by root cuttings, but other methods are considered more economical and are in general use. Sweet potato and horseradish are propagated commercially by root cuttings, and blackberries and raspberries may be propagated successfully by this method. It should be borne in mind, however, that a root cutting will perpetrate the part of the plant from which it was secured. A root taken from below the union of a budded or grafted tree reproduces the    seedling stock of unknown baring quality rater thane the standard top. The technique of making root cuttings varies widely with deferment species. The are customarily made from roots that are not smaller that ⅓ inch in diameter, which are cut in lengths of 2 to inches. They are then planet d out in the open the following spring. By another practice the cuttings are started in early winter in greenhouses or hotbeds and transplanted to the open after they have made top growth and formed new roots, such plants are usually large enough to be transplanted by spring. Root cuttings are also planted directly in the field in the spring, without preliminary treatment.  They many be planted in either a  horizontal or vertical position; it planted vertically, end that was nearest the crown of the  parent plant should be uppermost. New shoots develop from root cuttings from adventitious buds, and new branch roots form attentively in the cambium, eithe3r from the old root part used as a cutting or from the base of now shoots that develop from below ground.
Leaf Cuttings
Many plants with thick or fleshy leaves can be propagated by leaf cuttings. Thin-textured leaves dry up before rooting can take place. Practices vary in the actual preparation and planting of leaf cuttings. In some cases the leaf is detached from the parent plant and planted vertically in suitable medium either the petiole and about one-half of the leaf covered. Adventist roots and shoots both develop at the base, usually from the petiole. This arise normally from  tissue closely associated with the vascular cambium, and also in the primary rays. The lemon is an example of a plant that can be grown from leaf cuttings planted in this manner. By  another practice, the leaf is placed flat on sand in a propagating bed, cut transversely across the center vein, and then covered lightly with sand. Adventives shoots will develop where veins were severed, and adventives roots will develop from the bases of the new shoots. Species of Brypohyllum can be grown from leaf cuttings made in this manner.
Stem Cuttings
These are made from herbaceous plants, such as those frequently grown in greenhouse, and from woody plants may be classed as semi hardwood, or softwood , and hardwood, depending upon the stage of growth of the wood used. 
Herbaceous Cuttings :
These are made mostly of greenhouse plants at hat are herbaceous in type. Cuttings of such material are usually soft, tender, and succulent, they require special attention with reheard to temperature and moisture to prevent wilting. Under favorable conditions they root satisfactorily in a relatively by herbaceous cuttings are geranium, coleus, patina, alternate era, chrysanthemum, tomato, and sweet potato.
Hardwood Cuttings :
These are made from a wide verity of plants, including deciduous types, conifers, and broad-leaved evergreens. Cuttings of deciduous plants are taken during the dormant season. Those of some plants are taken in the fall, packed in moist insulating material, and stored at a temperature of 40 Degree F or less. These cuttings are usually placed in the bed about minded; this, however is not essential to rooting. Instead of the procedure just outlined cuttings of some deciduous plants are taken and planted in late winter, shortly before they would normally resume growth. Deciduous cuttings may be made from 4to 12 inches long, depending on the kind of plant. Usually one-year-old wood is used, but to make the top cut slightly above a node and the lower cut slightly below a node. Various kinds of cuttings show differe3nt responses with regard to the point of origin of roots; but the dessert tissue in the vicinity of the node is thought to be of value in preventing drying out or decay of the wood. Deciduous hardwood cuttings are not highly perishable, but they should be protected at all times to times to prevent them from becoming dry.
Many species of plants may be propagated by hardwood cuttings set directly in the nursery row. Grape, fig, and rose are commonly propagated in this manner. Rooting is determined partly by the type of soil in which they are planted; sandy loam soil that is well derived is preferred. In order to ensure good aeration, cuttings are frequently planted Jon high beds. In a heavy clay soil in Oregon, grape cuttings rooted well when setr in holes made with an iron bar and filled with sand. Hardwood cuttings include also those made from mature wood of conifer. Cuttings of such plants are made 4to6 inches long with foliage removed  from the lower portion of the  stem. As the cuttings form roots, new shoots also form, and this top growth is an indication that the cutting is ready to be moved . The customary procedure is to pot the roared plants an drown them in the pots for one season before moving them to the field. Some of the arborvitaes root within 2or 3 months; junipers frequently require 6 months or even longer. Several broad-leaved evergreen plants are grown from hard-wood cuttings. The cuttings of certain citrus species, for example, are made4 to 7 inches long with five or six nodes, from mature terminal growth. Leavers are removed from the lower part of the stem, but two or more are left at the top .As with other types of cuttings, it is important that cutting material be obtained from healthy, vigorous-growing trees. Orange, grapefruit, lemon, American holly, yaupon, and several species of Ligature are examples of board-leaved evergreens that may be propagated by hardwood cuttings.
Internal or Structural Factors:
Internal or structural factors represent conditions within the cutting, which may influence its ability to form roots and develop in to a plant. Such conditions may be affected by treatment to which the cuttings are subjected some time before they are removed from the plant. These treatment defer from external treatments in that they are designed to induce some change in the chemical composition or structure of the material before its is planted in the cutting bed.
Two general requirement are necessary in the formation and growth of roots on cuttings- the plant must have the capacity to  develop root and top growth, and energy must be the available carbohydrate and nitrogen markedly affect the rooting of cuttings. In California, cuttings on the basis of  there starch content. The freshly cut ends of the cuttings were dipped in a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, and the intensity of the staining in wood outside the medullar rays was used as an indication of the amount of starch present.
Cuttings that showed the deepest stain rotted 62 percent and formed good roots; the intermediate group, 35 per cent with moderate roots, and the low-starch group, 17 pre cent with very poor root systems.
Shoots of stock plants from which cuttings are to be taken are sometimes girdled in order to influence the amount of stored food that the cuttings will contain. The girdle is made at the point on the stem which will be the vase of the cutting. The resulting swelling above the girdle is accompanied by an accumulation of stored food at this point and also naturally occurring axons that move from the top of the plant toward the base. The girdling of the shoot is done during the growing season as soon as length  growth ceases, and the material is then removed for cuttings during the following dormant period. The additional amount of reserve food accumulated at the base of the cutting is of value in promoting root formation; the method however, would be practiced only for plants that are difficult to propagate.
If nitrogen is plentiful, and carbohydrates are low, growth of shoots is stimulated, but rooting is slight. Cuttings from plants that have made normally vigorous growth and hence have a carbohydrate accumulation in excess of inorganic nitrogen are more likely to root properly. 
Age and Maturity of the Tissue
There is a define relationship between the maturity of the tissues of ac cutting and the readiness with which it forms roots. If the cutting is soft and immature, it become weakened more readily from transpiration and more susceptible to decay; and if the tissue is old and mature, a longer period of theme is required for satisfactory rooting. In actual practice propagators learn that  certain stage of maturity, and that other kinds  can be grown best from these representing an entirely deferent stage. Specifically, some plants grow best from semi hardwood cuttings and show differences in the responses  of terminal and sub terminal; others  grow best from basal cuttings with tissue s that are more mature; there are also plants. Which root more readily from heel and mallet cuttings in which second year wood is included. Grape and certain plums grow readily by means of truncheon which consist of wood that is several years old. It has been shown that hardwood grape cutting taken from the middle and basal region of a stem normally better and produce more vinous plants than those from near the terminal; they possess more carbohydrates and less nitrogen than stem tips.
Callusing :
Callus formation at the basal end of the cutting was at one time considered it be a vital factor in the rooting of hardwood cuttings. More recently it has been accepted that it does not play an important part in root formation. Some few cases have been observed where roots originated in the callus tissue, but that is uncommon. Callus formation may be of benefit is cuttings that end of the cutting and preventing decay. Callused cuttings also respond more readily to chemicals used to aid in root formation than those not callused.  
Etiolation  :
Parts of shoots not containing chlorophyll are  said to be etiolated, and this condition is regarded as being favorable to root formation. Some investigators have attributed better  rooting to the formation of an hypodermics, as in roots Etiolated may be produced by wrapping stems with tape or by covering  with soil. The exclusion of light causes chlorophyll to dapperer. In some cases shoots are caused to develop in darkens, by mounding  with soil: chlorophyll never develops. Stems arising from below the ground, as in mound or continuous leverage, are etiolated.

Hardwood Cuttings

Semi hardwood Cuttings are succulent and tender, for this reason it is important that they be handled so as to prevent wilting after they are cut and before they are planet d. The presence of leaves causes a high rate of transpiration, which makes this difficult. Best results may be secured by cutting Best results may be secured by cutting them during a cool part of the day, preferably in the  early morning, while the material is turgid. They should then be wrapped in moist cloth or moss until planted. Such cuttings are usually started in specialty prepared beds in a  greenhouse, hotbed or cold framer,some such as blueberry, are sometimes started out doors in special beds.
In addition to cool temperature, shade, and high humidity, which are essential factors for good results with semi hardwood cuttings, bottom heat may also be supplied in order to provide more desirable conditions for rooting. Manure is frequently used for this purpose, or the beds may be heated with flues, hot water, or electric heating elements.Shade may be provided by stretching domestic cloth at a height of 3to4 feet above the bed, of the glass of the greenhouse may be sprayed with lime whitewash to provide the same effect.On a small scale, cuttings may be planted in shallow boxes or flats placed in a shaded location. The cuttings and adjacent areas are sprayed with a water several times a day to keep the cuttings from wilting.

Hardwood Cuttings :
These are made from a wide variety of plants, including deciduous types, conifers, and broad-leaved evergreens.Cuttings of deciduous plants are taken during a the dormant season. Those of some plants are taken in the fall, packed in moist insulating material,. and stored at a temperature of 40 Degree F . These cuttings are usually placed in the bed about midwinter. While in storage they may have formed callus at each end this however in is not essential to routing. Instead of the procedure just outlined cuttings of some deciduous plants are taken and planted in later winter, shorty before they would normally resume growth.

Bulbs:

Bulbs:
Most bulbs are subterranean. Some, However are borne above the ground.

Sutructure:
A abulb is a modified stem in which the central axis is vertical and much shortened, perhaps to ⅓ inch. The inter nodes and nodes are not easily distinguishable. the central axis has a terminal growing point and axillary buds. This would be expected since it is a modified, vertically compressed stem.A bulbs is comparable in structure to an ordinary bud which has the embryonic parts to produce a stem and also to cabbage head in which the central axis, nodes, int erodes, terminal growing point, leaves, and axillary buds are clearly evident. The fleshy modified leaves are closely oppressed. In some bulbs the modified leaves are continuous around the axis, forming a series of layers. In cross section these layers appear as concentric ring, as may observed in the onion. Bulbs of this type are known as layered or tunicate. In the other bulbs the scales are not continuous but are rather narrow and fleshy, they many be removed singly form the outer edges of the bulb. they are known as scaly bulbs, and lilies are the most important members of this groupx

Growth Cycle:
When bulbs are plated, the following growth processes are likely to occur, adventive roots develop from the4 base of the central axis, growth of the central stem at its terminal produces more leaves in the interior of the bulb, the bases of these leaves become additional layers or scales, under favorable conditions, a flower stalk is produced by the terminal growth and elongtion of the central axis, may grow and produce other new bulbs, with all the characteristics of the mohter bulb. These provide a means whereby bulbs may be incresed in numbers. The narcissus group of bulbs which includes daffodils and jonquils, comprises a group of very useful and popular flowers. The normal cycle of reproduction of the narcissus requires a period of 3 years.

The mother bulbs, as they reach maximum size, develop buds in the axis of the layers. These buds, still attched to the central stem, continue to develop, forming daughter bulds, or slasbs, which may be separated easily form the mother bulbs at the end of the growing season. These, separated and replanted each year for 3 years, become successfully larger until flower stalks are produced and the cycle of development is Complete.

In certain kin of layered bulbs the mother bulb is depleted each season of growth, and bulbs for further propagation are derived entirely from those that from from axillary buds. The tulip is an example of the bulb of this type. The formation of a large number of adventive bulblets can be stimulated in hyacinth bulbs by cutting in the basal portion of the mother bulbs to remove the entire basal planet, or cutting across the base deep enough to extend though the growing point.
The lily is the most important of the several different methods by which it can be successfully propagated.A large bulb will have from 75 to 100 scales. The when detached from the mother bulb and planted under suitable condition of temperature and moisture, will develop small bulblets on the inner, or concave, sides. They arise from adventious buds. The are separated from the scales in due time and when grown under suitable conditions, will be from 3 to 4 years. Stems of some species will produce a large number of new bulblets. They are pulled from the old bulbs and heeled in shortly after the flowers have opened. In a period of 35 to 40 days. small bullets will have formed on the base of the stem. Their origin is largely from adventitious buds. These may be removed and plnted singly, or the entires stem withe the bulbets intact may be planted horizontally to provide increased growth of the small bulbs. Vuttings of hte stems may also be made, withe three or four leaves intact, or individual leaf cuttings may also be made, with hell s or mallets of the stem. In either case, bulblets are formed from axillary buds. They are separated and grown until they reach flowering size as indicate above.

Aerial bulbils are formed by several species of lilies. They occur in the axils of the upper leaves and may be removed soon after the flowering period. The bulbis may be set in beds and allowed to grow for 2 years, which time some of them will be producing flowers.

Division of the bulb occurs under nature conditions as a result of growth of asillary buds, and small increses may be obtained by digging the bulbs at intervals of 4 to 5 years for division. In commercial propagation, one of the other methods described will give more satisfactory results.

Seed are produced by almost all the lilies, and this method has the advantage of producing immense numbers of new plants, It also a means of producing new variete4s. The growing of lilies from seed is a delicate undertaking. Seed of some species germinated poorly.

Corms:
A structure very similar to bulbs is the corm, or solid bulb,
Sturcture:
A corm is a modified stem in which the central axis has become short and compact. The entire structure, when dormant, consists of the fleshy central axis. It differs from the true bulbs in that the dormant corm is solid, without layers or scales. In cross or vertical section, the nods and very short inter nodes of a corm ar e clearly evident. Apical buds and some axillary buds are present. At maturity, dried-leaf bases, arising from the various nodes, constitute the thin outer covering.