Introducation

Bangladesh is a tropical country. Its climatic factors like temperature, rainfall, air, light, etc are favorable for the production of various crops. It is also a Delta  country. As a result, its topography and soil conditions are favorable for the growth of certain crops . Think about the vast expanse of flat land we have! Also the few hills we have are not very big and high. Bangladesh is crisscrossed by hundreds of rivers- big and small. They give the land a lot of alluvial after each flooding. This alluvial soil is fertile and easy to prepare for cultivation.

A country plough  is a traditional Agriculture implement. Every village carpenter can made it. And you can buy a plowshare from any village blacksmith. The carpenter first makes its body by shaping it out of a log. Then he shapes the upper end of the curved wood into a handle. He then fixes a share to the top of the lower end of the body. Finally, he fixes a wooden beam to the body. Now it is ready for use in the field. A pair of bullocks draw the plough while the farmer holds the handle firmly. He can use the plough to break up and loosen the soil. A country p lough has some advantages.He can easily carry it from one place to another.It is simple to made, easy to operate and is not expensive. But if you want to do some deep plugging and control deep-rooted weeds the country plough is not the right tool.
In these days of fast- increasing inflation and wage restriction, are finding it essential to do everything they can to reduce their cost of living . Growing one’s own fruit and vegetable has become necessary, as well as pleasurable, for many of us. Home freezers are now very popular, and, if used intelligently, do not take long to repay their initial cost. You can grow you produce cheaply from seeds of plants, pick it at its peak, eat what  you want, and freeze the rest so that you can still enjoy it in its prime when it is out of season, and without having the trouble of going to the shops.
But a far larger part of the average family’s food bill goes on protein foods, important which, like fruit and vegetables, is an important part of a healthy, well balanced diet. Cheese and eggs are still relatively cheap sources of protein, have risen phenomenally. Even the cheaper’ cuts of meat and types of fish are now expensive, and a home-produced source of these foods is the best way to make the maximum savings. Traditionally, these sources wore chickens, which produce eggs, of course, as well as meat, and rabbits. But nowadays people are also turning to fresh- water fish such as rainbow trout, carp and trench, which can be raised in ponds and ornamental for the unproductive goldfish, golden ore, golden ruddy, etc.
Although to many people this may sound a novel idea, it is nothing of the sort. All the medieval monasteries had within their walls one or more fishponds stocked with carp. The monks were obliged to eat fish on certain days  for religious reasons,  and sea fish would have been inedible after  a long journey from the coast .a fish pool was also a feature of many of the garden of great house, and before the eighteenth century, served the same purpose. Then the style of large houses and their gardens changed the pool became ornamental and was planted out with water lilies, and goldfish were introduced. In the more rural districts of France many small pools are stocked with carp still, and provide fish for the table.

How Fish live


A fish is a cold-blooded  creature which breathes in oxygen extracted from the water, not form the air as on the case of mammals .there are three classes of fish and they are primarily differentiated by the of skeleton that they have. Most British fresh-water fish (including rainbow trout, and teach have) fall into the third group skeleton, while those of the other classes have cartilage skeletons, with jaws some cases and without in others. Many o f these fresh –water fish with skeletons of bone structure have swim bladders, the function of which is discussed overleaf.
Body shape of fish :
There are great variations in the body shape of fish over the whole range of species. The most usual, however, is a streamlined one like that of he typical fish. Certainly this is approximate shape of rainbow and teaches

How fish move :
As mentioned before, some fish have a swim bladder, which is situated in the middle of their body. It is a silvery, gas –fish bag which, permitting a fish to float and swim at any depth in the water without rising or sinking. Any fish that have not got this organ must keep on the move continuously.

A fish can follow any course it wants through the water by using its fins. Two pelvic and each of dorsal, caudal (or tail) and anal fins. this, however , varies form species to species and some fish lack pelvic or pectoral fins, while others lack a dorsal or caudal fin . in some  instances several fins are amalgamated. An example of this is in the eel, whose very long dorsal and anal fins merge with the caudal fin, giving a continuous edging so fin along the whole body. The fins control stability and direction.

The senses :
Fish have eyes with a very wide range of vision. Between the eyes and the mouth, on the uppermost side of the head, are two small vents –nostrils, but the fish does not breath through these. Instead they are used for smelling only and have nothing to do with the respiratory system.
There is a faint line running on either side or the body of a fish, which is known as the lateral line. This consists of a series of highly sensitive cells, which, by means of records of pressure, indicate distances and warn of hazards. It is, in fact, a built in radar system. In addition, some fish have barbells, which are fleshy filaments hanging from their mouths, which they as feelers.

Breathing

Breathing :
Fish have a special mechanism in the shape of their gills for extracting oxygen from the water. This gills are positioned on either side of the head, a little gill, the gill filament and the gill lamella, are protected by the gill cover. The water enters the girls by way of the mouth valve preventing the water fro, flowing out. It leaves through the skin fold which functions as a valve at the opening at the rear of the fill cover. Any food particles are sieved out by gill rankers on the  inside of the gill lamella, in which there is a oxygen in the water in to the bloodstream of the fish.

Feeding :
Many fish are carnivorous, but they do not all prey on other fish. The most usual food consists of a variety of bottom-living and mid –water organisms, such as insect larvae, mollusks, small plank tonic crustaceans etc. Some fish live on insects which fall on the water surface. Often, when these are plentiful, they do not touch other food. Some species of fresh-water fish live exclusively on vegetation. Carp and teach to like eat water plants.    

The digestive system :
As a fish does not breathe through its nostrils or its month, but by means of its gills its gullet or esophagus leads from the mouth straight into the body cavity. Usually a fish does not chew its food, its teeth being used to grab food or prey. The food is swallowed whole. Consequently the gullet is capable of stretching to a considerable extent. Food passes next into the stomach, which is folded into a U-shape. The first half (9cardiac), which is the larger, is capable of being distended considerably by a good meal.

The second half (pyloric)  leads through a sphincter (circular) muscle, which joins the stomach and the intestine. Just beyond is the pyloric cacao, which has numerous long, narrow sacs in it, rather like the fingers of a rubber glove. There are usually more than thirty in a rainbow trout. These increase the surface or the absorptive area of the gut and sometimes aid digestion by secreting by secreting digestive juices. The length of the intestine varies appreciably from one fish to another.  It exists in the cavity of the body of the fish as a loosely coiled tube. At its far end it opens to the outside by way pf the anus, which is situated just behind the pelvic fin.

At the forward end of the body cavity is the blobbed liver with the gall bladder from which the bile duct liver with the gall baser from which the bile duct leads to the intestine. In this same area there are scattered the pancreatic tissues. The spleen is joined to the back arm of arm of the stomach.   

The digestive juices are secreted into the stomach, the pyloric caeca and the front end to the intestine. Other secretions are injected from the pancreas area. Bile, which emulsifies the oils in the food, is injected from the liver through the bile duct. These all contrive to break down the various foods into compounds that can be assimilated by the body of the fish through cells in the walls of the intestine. The unwanted, undigested remains pass out as faces through as faces through the anus.

Environment


Temperature of the water :
The temperature of the water in which fish live is very important. In the first place it has very considerable influence on its oxygen content, because the solubility of any gas decreases as the temperature rises. Water that is satisfactory for a particular species when it is colder might prove lethal when it because too hot because the oxygen has been driven off.

The optimum temperature of the water varies for different fish, so they will not naturally live together in the same environment. as an example, that for brown trout is between 45 F (12 c) and 60F (15c) whereas that for carp is between 72F (22c) and 77F (25c) . These figures are consistent with the fact that brown trout revel in the cold, well oxygenated  waters of, mountain streams, while carp are happy in warm oxygen is much lass abundant.

Rainbow trout tolerate higher temperatures and lower oxygen concentration than brown trout. Consequently it is possible to come to a compromise and have some ponds in which rainbow trout and carp will live reasonably will together and flourish.

Fresh clean water :
The water in a pool containing fresh-water fish must be fresh. No account must it become brackish (there is a rare possibility of this happening if the pool is replenished form an old well ). It must not be allowed to because stagnant, because it might contain substance. Obnoxious to fish. There must be no decaying organic matter present as these produce toxic gases harmful to fish.

Looking After Fish

Feeding fish :
In well-established garden ponds, fish survive without being fed from the outside if there is plenty of vegetation on which water insects can breed. The one exception is when fish are introduced into a newly made pool, because the vegetation and other natural foods have not built up to the extent needed to sustain fish without some additional contribution. Supplementary feeding should be carried on for at least the first season after stocking such a pond.

The food which various types of fish eat differs to some extent. Several, such as perch, pike and zanier, live largely on other fish, even to the extent of cannibalism of their own species. It is important therefore that such predators are not introduce into a gender pool stocked with, say carp pr rainbow trout , which although they will eat fry, largely liven on insects, larvae etc. and especially with  carp, pond, vegetation. There are some fairly well-defined rules covering the feeding pf fish dept in a garden pool, whether for decorative or edible purposes. To produce healthy fish these rules must be adhered to strictly. In the first place, if fish are to grow quickly for the table, it is essential that they should have ample oxygen. Another factor is the temperature of the water. When it is warm there needs are greater than when it cools down in winter. In fact when it is rally cold their food intake falls almost nothing. Between late November and early March it is seldom necessary to feed fish at all. 

There are, however two times in the years when it is important to be sure that they are well fed. One pf these is at the end  of summer and early autumn –September and – October –when a supplementary high-protein ration should be provided, because natural life in ponds diminishes and it is important for the fish to be fortified to withstand the winter, during which time they rely on nourishment stored in then own bodies. The other time is in the spring when insects and other natural foods are only just beginning to come to life again. At these two periods it is an advantage to supplement their natural diet with chopped-up earthworms, vegetable proteins, yeast products, shredded meat etc. There is an excellent proprietary high-protein food in the form of floating pellets, produced by a leading manufacturer of trout and salmon food. 

It is a complete diet of fish meal, vegetable proteins, yeast and cereals to which is asses a proportion of shrimp meal, vitamins and mineral. As the pellets float, the fish come to the surface to nibble them. The pellets are easily removed if they are not soon devoured, so there is no risk of pollution. During the rest of the year other food that can be given includes baked breadcrumbs, oatmeal soaked in hot water, mashed peas, cooked potatoes and, cheapest of all, household scraps. If fish are being raised for the table and are table and ate to grow satisfactorily in a reasonably short time, they must be given an amole amount of food in addition to that which they get from pond life. The operative word is ‘ample’ as a guide, they should have no more food than they will consume in five minutes. The amount fish will eat in this period depends on a number of factors, such as whether they are din and active, and the temperature pf the water. Normally, one feed a day, if it is pf the right size is sufficient.

There is one danger period –when you go away for two or three weeks’ holiday. a kindly offer form a neighbors to feed the fish should be gently refused, because the fish may well be inadvertently overfed. It is quite safe to leave the fish to fend for themselves.

Feed Meter


Feed meter :
While it is probably better to regulate the fate of feeding fish by experience, there is one device that can give some guidance –a feed meter. This is a temperature gauge which indicates when and when not to feed the fish


Fish feeder :
You can also buy a floating food dispenser, which distributes food automatically when is active by the fish. It is suitable for all types of feeding stuff and for all size of fish. They take just what they want and there is no risk of pollution. This device is excellent for use during holiday times and also during mild periods in winter. In a larger pool it might be necessary to install several of these floating fish feeders.


Removing fish from a pool :
If ever you have to empty a pond containing fish you must remove them to a safe place such as a larger barrel or water butt, of a temporary pond constructed in a corner of the garden by digging a hole of a suitable size and lining it with polythene sheeting. if for any reason the fish have to stay out of the main pool for a long time, a temporary pond is the vest solution . it is important, however to make sure that the temporary pond is large enough, so there is no danger of. Overcrowding :


When removing fish from the pool never catch them in your hand as this might damage their scales and remove the protective mucus covering their bodies. This renders them more liable to disease. Fish must always be caught in a net. There are several designs of nets. Usually the framework and handle are made of aluminum. Satisfactory nets have an opening pf 120sq. ins (770sq.cm). There are also nets available with (2.25m) long handles, which are telescopic. In addition there are hand fish nets which have a wire framework and a rot-proof, very fine mesh. Hand nets vary in size, but the largest opening is about 10*9ins (25*22.5cm). They are particularly useful for removing fry from the main pool to a nursery pond if breeding takes place. If the fry are not taken out, until they reach more than I in. (2.5cm) long they are likely to be devoured by the larger fish.

Predators Pests & Diseases


Submerged oxygenating plants :
He important plants can be quite simple planted in small plastic pots or baskets. If they are bought planted up they usually have a lead weight attached to them so that they usually have a  lead weight attached to them so that they sink to the bottom. If you plant them into your own pots in the garden, a weight such as a heavy  stone should  be tied to each pot. Alter naively  they can be weighted and dropped unpotted on to a half in. (1.25-cm) layer of washed gravel spread over the bottom of the pool,in which they will root. This method prevents becoming too invasive. As they have little root they can be planted at any time.

Deep marginal plant :
These are planted in polythene crates on bricks a few inches below the surface the water and gradually  lowered until they reach their required depth. Popular deep marginal plants are Appleton distances (Water Hawthorn), which requires a depth of about 12ins (31cm) and which must have its crown 6 ins (15cm) below the surface or the water in order to survive frost.

Floating plants :
Excellent representatives of this group are which is damaged by frost and should be winters indoors Hydrochloric Morse-range (Frog-bit) and Stratification alongside (water Soldier Or water cactus). These plants are merely placed on the surface of the water at any time during the growing season.

Water lilies :
These beautiful plants are planted  in crates supported on bricks so as to allow at first 3-6ins (7.5-15cm) of water above them. When they commence to grow they should be gradually lowered until they are at their right depth. When first planted, all the mature leaves and supply roots should be removed with a sharp knife.

Maintenance of aquatic plants :
Water lilies in containers must be re potted  between mid-March and June every three or four years.Marginal plants should be thinned and replanted periodically. In the autumn all excess growth and dead leaves etc. must be cut away from water plants with a sharp knife to prevent pollution. Water plants growing in baskets and pots should be fed with fertilizer from time to time. This may be done by placing  a ball about 1.5ins (3.75cm)  in  diameter, made of equal parts clay and bone meal, into the soil alongside the plant roots. Alternatively you can buy a proprietary  fertilizer in a perforated sachet, which is placed near the roots of the plants.

Pests :
Pests that attack aquatic plants are water-lily black fly water-lily beetle and brown chin marks moth. Fortunately these pests are consumed by the fish. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to hose them off plants so that the fish can get at them. 

Wild aquatic plants :
Do not introduce plants form rivers and streams into a garden pool, since plants from wild sources might bring diseases and parasites.

Bath

Fish have eyes with a very wide range of vision. Between the eyes the mouth, on the uppermost side of the head, are two small vents- nostrils, but the fish does not breathe through these. Instead they are used for smelling only and have nothing to do with the respiratory system. There is a faint line running on either side of the body of a fish, which is known as the lateral line. This consists of a series of highly sensitive cells, which, by means of records of pressure, indicate distance and warm of hazard. It is, fact, a built-in radar system. In addition, some fish gave balers, which are fleshy filaments hanging from their mouth, which they use as feelers.

Breathing :
Fish have a special mechanism in the shape of their gills for extracting oxygen from the water. The gills are positioned on either side of the head, a little behind the eyes. The vital parts of the gill, the gill  filament and the gill lamella,are protected by the gill cover. the water enters the gill by way of the mouth, which contain what amounts to a non-return valve preventing the water from flowing out. It leaves through the skin fold, which functions as a valve at the opening at the rear of the gill cover. Any food particles are sieved out by the gill rakes on the inside of the gill arch. The water then flows through the gill lamells, in which is a fine network of blood capillaries to absorb the oxygen in the water into the bloodstream of the fish.

Other Meances to Pond Life

Frogs :
Frogs are more a nuisance than a danger the fish, except  that on rare occasion fish are injured by colliding with them. If, however, they are allowed to breed they can reach a disturbance with  their croaking. they are prolific bedder an a pool can soon become rewed with tadpoles. these should be removed with a net. Frogs live most of the year near water, but in February congregate in ponds to breed.The best way of dealing with frosh is to cover the pool with a net, particularly during late winter and spring.


Toads :
Similarly, toads in a garden pool are more a nuisance than a menace, by filling it with tadpoles and by devouring food that is needed for the fish. They live mainly on dry land, but always return to the water in which they were born in late Mach and April for breeding. They can be kept out by covering the pond with a net.


Newts :
Newts can be a danger to fish because they include small fish in their diet. They live most the year on dry land but enter the water to breed in early spring and leave it again at the end of the breeding season.Although they are usually rather smaller than mature frogs and toads a net will stop them entering a fish pool.


Great pond snail :

Although most water snails do no harm, the great pond snail or fresh- water whelk should be removed from a pool if it appears because it does considerable damage to water plants. The snails can be recognized because they are longer (up to 2 ins / 6.25) then other water snails and they have a long narrow shell with a very pointed end. If any eggs appear on the water plants they should be hand-picked. The adult snails can be trapped by putting a lettuce or cabbage stump in the pool. This should be removed very frequently and any snails  on it shaken off.

Breathin & Feeding

 Breathin :
 Fish have a special mechanism in the shape of their gills for extracting oxygen from the water. The gills are positioned on either side of the head, a little behind the eyes. The vital parts of the gill, the gill filament and the gill lamella, are protected by the gill filament and the gill lamells, are protected by the gill cover . The water inters the gill by way of the mouth, which contains what what amounts to a non-return valve preventing the water from flowing out. It leaves through the skin fold, which functions as a valve at the opening at the rear of the gill cover Any food particles are sieved out by the gill rakes on the inside of the gill arch. The water then flows through the gill lamells, in which there is a fine network of blood capillaries to absorb the oxygen in the water into the bloodstream of the fish.
Feeding :Many fish are carnivorous, buy the they do not all prey on other fish. The most usual food consists of a variety of bottom-living and mid-water organisms, such as insert larvae, mollusk, small plank tonic crustaceans, etc. Some fish live on insects which fall on the water surface. Often, when these are plentiful, they do not touch other food. Some species of fresh-water fish live exclusively on vegetation. Carp and tench like to eat water plants. 

Pollution Prevention

The first important thing that has to be done to maintain a healthy colony of fish is to see that pollution does not affect the condition of the water, because the toxic substances from it are the commonest cause of fish dying.Water is usually polluted by decaying vegetable matter, such as fallen leaves, branches and twigs.In a garden pool these come form two main sources- dying water plants, especially the large lush leaves of water lilies, and the leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs; and perhaps to a lesser extent these days, soot from the atmosphere. Other sources of danger that must be closely guarded against are dead frogs and fish.
As mentioned precocious two of these sources of trouble cam be averted by anticipation. Always ensure that your pond filter is free from debris and from August onwards look for dying leaves, silks, and seedpods on water lilies; deep marginal water plants and other aquatics are likely to discard them generously. As they appear they should be removed. When the leaves of marginal plants die off, usually in October they should be cut off.
Leaves from neighboring trees are shrubs, the other serious source of pollution in a fishpond, Should be prevent from falling into the water by spreading a net over it in good time.such a net might also prevent the fish being stolen stolen by herons, kingfisher and other predators. Typical nets range in sizer from 12*9ft(3.6*2.7m) to 12ft (10.8*3.6m). They are made of  ¾ -in (1.9) plastic mesh. Spread the net right over the pool. If the surrounds are soft ground, fix it firmly in position by supplied with the net. Otherwise hold it down with bricks pr pieces of stone. Normally it is placed in position after the pool heater( if you are using one) has been installed. 
 If leaves have already fallen into the pool, possible because of an unexpected gale, before the net has been put into position,they can be removed by dredging the bottom with a fish net. This can be done more effectively if the pool is first half- emptied.Sometimes leaves and debris collect on the surface of the water before they sink to the bottom. These can be removed with a had fish net.An improvised device for this purpose consists of a piece of chicken wire fixed over the prongs of a garden fork. The netting should be about 16ins (40cm) wide than the prongs and should have the last 5ins (12.5) on either side besent up at an angle of about 20 degree to the vertical. The great care when using this device in a plastic- lined pool 
Regular partial replenishment of water with fresh supplies also assists in keeping down the concentration of toxic substances. In fact, if the water looks dark green or blackish in October  and you do not want to empty the pool completely, the water can be pumped out to the half-way mark and replaced with fresh.   

Overhauling mechanical equipment :
Late autumn is a good time to check the pumps, clean them and have them overhauled. At the same time, examine fountain jets and clean out any holes that have become stopped up. Also check all the electrical cables and connections. Give this equipment very special attention: because of the proximity of the water in the pool it would be dangerous if there were a breakdown in the insulation. It might be advisable to ask an electrician to check the circuits.Late November to early December is a very suitable the low temperature at this time of year means tat oxygen concentration in the water is relatively high. Also fish at the  rime are rather less lively and their demand for oxygen is less. This makes it easier to shout off the pumping plant for a shout time.Nevertheless the fish must be kept under observation. If any sings of oxygen starvation appear, deal with the situation immediately by playing a jet of water on to the surface from the nozzle  of a garden hose held about 3ft (0.9m) above the water.
Polythene, though not very satisfactory  for lining a permanent  pool, is nevertheless very useful for making a small temporary pool, since this material is cheap and easily rolled up for storage when not in use.  It is particularly useful for making a pool to be used temporarily for housing fish and aquatic plants, such as water lilies, when the main pool is being cleaned out or repaired. In addition whe3n fresh- water fish, such as carp, breed in captivity, the tiny young fish should be removed form the main pool and kept separately form the main pool and kept separately until they are 2-3ins (5-7.5cm) long. If this is not done, some of the larger fish may eat them. Wooden barrels or metal drums are often used for this purpose, but unlike polythene sheeting they need a lot of storage space when not in use, and this is seldom available in today's small gardens. A temporary pool could aslo be used to house any fish that show signs of being unwell.


Safety of children and pets :
Perhaps the best way of dealing with the3 problem of safeguarding children and pets is to  cover the whole surface of the pond very securely with strong, fine nylon mesh which, when tightly secured round the edges of the pond and supported on timer cross members, can withstand the weight of several small children. A thick pl;panting of  marginal plants would deter young children and  animals form stepping on to the netting. The mesh will not spoil the appearance of the pool because aquatic plants will grow through it. It will not affect the fish at all. Another method is to fence the pool in around its entire perimeter to a height of up to 3 ft (90cm) , with either a green plastic- cover wire fence or similar 2-in . (5-cm) mesh chain-link fencing supported on metal or wooden posts . The latter is less prominent. Admittedly both kinds may look unattractive, but you can soften the effect by planting groups of herbaceous perennials at intervals on the outside of the fence. If your pool is a raised one, say 2ft 6ins (75cm)- 3ft (90 cm) above the ground, there is no risk to small children.

Teasel gourd

Teasel gourd:
Teasel gourd is such kind of expensive crop as the type of pumpkin. It can be stored for a long time in its normal condition. A sufficient quantity of teasel gourd is exported to the Middle East and United Kingdom every year. Cultivation of teasel gourd spreads in different places of Bangladesh in the recent years.
Climate, Land and Soil :
Warm and moist climate is suitable for teasel gourd cultivation. It can be grown in semi-shadowed place, but accretes better in fully sunny place.  It is grown only in the month September to November in Bangladesh. The land which is free from flood and well managed for water expulsion is convenient for teasel gourd cultivation. Double-ash and etela typed soil is appropriate for teasel gourd cultivation. Acid soil is good for teasel gourd.
Varieties :
Asami, Monipuri, Mukundopuri and Modhupuri  are noticeable among the local varieties. The Asami types are tasty and round and short in shape. But Monipuris growth is better than other.
Life Line of Crop :
It needs about 200-270 days to get fulfilled production of teasel gourd.
Reproduction :
Teasel gourd reproduces in many ways such as radish, real seeds and cutting of tree trunk. Generally it reproduces with radish. It is very easy to spreads its parentage with radish. In this way it maintains all specialty of mother type.
Plants also can be prepared from real seeds but it has some disadvantages. Such as about 50% seeds don’t sprout and about 50% plants grow as male among the sprouted seeds.
New plants are prepared from cutting the tree trunk too.
..
Quantity of Seeds :
It needs radish of seeds according to following table for teasel gourd cultivation.
Radish
150 kg/hector or 1600-2500 pcs radish/hector will be needed. Each radish needs 15-20 cm in height.
Number of radish
Female:  1440-2250 pcs/hector
    Male:  160-250 pcs/hector
Weight of radish
Female:  142.5 kg/hector
    Male:  7.5 kg/hector

Preparing Land and Planting Radish :
It needs to prepare bed and mada according to following table.
Size of bed
Breath
Length
45 cm
Depends on length of land
Size of drain
Breath
Deepness
30 cm
20 cm
Size of mada

45 x 45 x 45 cm
Number of rows in each bed

2
Distance
Rows to rows
Tree to tree
200-250 cm
200-250 cm
Number of mada in per hector
1600-2500 pcs

Number of tree
Female
Male
1440-2250 pcs
160-250 pcs (5-10% of number of total trees)

Cuttage

Cuttage is the process of propagating plants by the use of vegetative parts that, when placed under suitable conditions, will develop into completed plats. It differs from layerage  in that the parts used are detached from the parent plant before they have an opportunity to develops roots. Whit species of pl ants that strike roots readily, cottage is a cheap and convenient mode of  propagation. It is used extensively in the propagation of ornamental plants, including deciduous types, broad-leaved evergreens, and coniferous forms. Some frits, such as grapes and figs have been propagated in this manner since ancient time, and more recently there has been considerable progress in the rooting of other fruit plants, such as the Bruce plum. In the majority of cases, hover, the rooting of fruit-tree species is of more importance in the production of uniform stocks for budding of grafting.

Classes of Cuttings  
Plant parts used in making cuttings fall into four groups, roots, leaves, stems, and modified stems. Theoretically, all plants that have primary mortems Arte capable of being propagated by cutting. All plants cannot profitably be increased by this means, however and only practical experience has made it possible to distinguish between species that can be propagated form cutting and those that cannot.

Root Cuttings
As a rule, plants that naturally produce suckers freely can be propagated easily by root cuttings. Some species of plants that root rarely or not all from stem cutting can be reproduced by this means. Persimmon, pear, pecan, apple, and plum are of this calls. They may be stared by root cuttings, but other methods are considered more economical and are in general use. Sweet potato and horseradish are propagated commercially by root cuttings, and blackberries and raspberries may be propagated successfully by this method. It should be borne in mind, however, that a root cutting will perpetrate the part of the plant from which it was secured. A root taken from below the union of a budded or grafted tree reproduces the    seedling stock of unknown baring quality rater thane the standard top. The technique of making root cuttings varies widely with deferment species. The are customarily made from roots that are not smaller that ⅓ inch in diameter, which are cut in lengths of 2 to inches. They are then planet d out in the open the following spring. By another practice the cuttings are started in early winter in greenhouses or hotbeds and transplanted to the open after they have made top growth and formed new roots, such plants are usually large enough to be transplanted by spring. Root cuttings are also planted directly in the field in the spring, without preliminary treatment.  They many be planted in either a  horizontal or vertical position; it planted vertically, end that was nearest the crown of the  parent plant should be uppermost. New shoots develop from root cuttings from adventitious buds, and new branch roots form attentively in the cambium, eithe3r from the old root part used as a cutting or from the base of now shoots that develop from below ground.
Leaf Cuttings
Many plants with thick or fleshy leaves can be propagated by leaf cuttings. Thin-textured leaves dry up before rooting can take place. Practices vary in the actual preparation and planting of leaf cuttings. In some cases the leaf is detached from the parent plant and planted vertically in suitable medium either the petiole and about one-half of the leaf covered. Adventist roots and shoots both develop at the base, usually from the petiole. This arise normally from  tissue closely associated with the vascular cambium, and also in the primary rays. The lemon is an example of a plant that can be grown from leaf cuttings planted in this manner. By  another practice, the leaf is placed flat on sand in a propagating bed, cut transversely across the center vein, and then covered lightly with sand. Adventives shoots will develop where veins were severed, and adventives roots will develop from the bases of the new shoots. Species of Brypohyllum can be grown from leaf cuttings made in this manner.
Stem Cuttings
These are made from herbaceous plants, such as those frequently grown in greenhouse, and from woody plants may be classed as semi hardwood, or softwood , and hardwood, depending upon the stage of growth of the wood used. 
Herbaceous Cuttings :
These are made mostly of greenhouse plants at hat are herbaceous in type. Cuttings of such material are usually soft, tender, and succulent, they require special attention with reheard to temperature and moisture to prevent wilting. Under favorable conditions they root satisfactorily in a relatively by herbaceous cuttings are geranium, coleus, patina, alternate era, chrysanthemum, tomato, and sweet potato.
Hardwood Cuttings :
These are made from a wide verity of plants, including deciduous types, conifers, and broad-leaved evergreens. Cuttings of deciduous plants are taken during the dormant season. Those of some plants are taken in the fall, packed in moist insulating material, and stored at a temperature of 40 Degree F or less. These cuttings are usually placed in the bed about minded; this, however is not essential to rooting. Instead of the procedure just outlined cuttings of some deciduous plants are taken and planted in late winter, shortly before they would normally resume growth. Deciduous cuttings may be made from 4to 12 inches long, depending on the kind of plant. Usually one-year-old wood is used, but to make the top cut slightly above a node and the lower cut slightly below a node. Various kinds of cuttings show differe3nt responses with regard to the point of origin of roots; but the dessert tissue in the vicinity of the node is thought to be of value in preventing drying out or decay of the wood. Deciduous hardwood cuttings are not highly perishable, but they should be protected at all times to times to prevent them from becoming dry.
Many species of plants may be propagated by hardwood cuttings set directly in the nursery row. Grape, fig, and rose are commonly propagated in this manner. Rooting is determined partly by the type of soil in which they are planted; sandy loam soil that is well derived is preferred. In order to ensure good aeration, cuttings are frequently planted Jon high beds. In a heavy clay soil in Oregon, grape cuttings rooted well when setr in holes made with an iron bar and filled with sand. Hardwood cuttings include also those made from mature wood of conifer. Cuttings of such plants are made 4to6 inches long with foliage removed  from the lower portion of the  stem. As the cuttings form roots, new shoots also form, and this top growth is an indication that the cutting is ready to be moved . The customary procedure is to pot the roared plants an drown them in the pots for one season before moving them to the field. Some of the arborvitaes root within 2or 3 months; junipers frequently require 6 months or even longer. Several broad-leaved evergreen plants are grown from hard-wood cuttings. The cuttings of certain citrus species, for example, are made4 to 7 inches long with five or six nodes, from mature terminal growth. Leavers are removed from the lower part of the stem, but two or more are left at the top .As with other types of cuttings, it is important that cutting material be obtained from healthy, vigorous-growing trees. Orange, grapefruit, lemon, American holly, yaupon, and several species of Ligature are examples of board-leaved evergreens that may be propagated by hardwood cuttings.
Internal or Structural Factors:
Internal or structural factors represent conditions within the cutting, which may influence its ability to form roots and develop in to a plant. Such conditions may be affected by treatment to which the cuttings are subjected some time before they are removed from the plant. These treatment defer from external treatments in that they are designed to induce some change in the chemical composition or structure of the material before its is planted in the cutting bed.
Two general requirement are necessary in the formation and growth of roots on cuttings- the plant must have the capacity to  develop root and top growth, and energy must be the available carbohydrate and nitrogen markedly affect the rooting of cuttings. In California, cuttings on the basis of  there starch content. The freshly cut ends of the cuttings were dipped in a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, and the intensity of the staining in wood outside the medullar rays was used as an indication of the amount of starch present.
Cuttings that showed the deepest stain rotted 62 percent and formed good roots; the intermediate group, 35 per cent with moderate roots, and the low-starch group, 17 pre cent with very poor root systems.
Shoots of stock plants from which cuttings are to be taken are sometimes girdled in order to influence the amount of stored food that the cuttings will contain. The girdle is made at the point on the stem which will be the vase of the cutting. The resulting swelling above the girdle is accompanied by an accumulation of stored food at this point and also naturally occurring axons that move from the top of the plant toward the base. The girdling of the shoot is done during the growing season as soon as length  growth ceases, and the material is then removed for cuttings during the following dormant period. The additional amount of reserve food accumulated at the base of the cutting is of value in promoting root formation; the method however, would be practiced only for plants that are difficult to propagate.
If nitrogen is plentiful, and carbohydrates are low, growth of shoots is stimulated, but rooting is slight. Cuttings from plants that have made normally vigorous growth and hence have a carbohydrate accumulation in excess of inorganic nitrogen are more likely to root properly. 
Age and Maturity of the Tissue
There is a define relationship between the maturity of the tissues of ac cutting and the readiness with which it forms roots. If the cutting is soft and immature, it become weakened more readily from transpiration and more susceptible to decay; and if the tissue is old and mature, a longer period of theme is required for satisfactory rooting. In actual practice propagators learn that  certain stage of maturity, and that other kinds  can be grown best from these representing an entirely deferent stage. Specifically, some plants grow best from semi hardwood cuttings and show differences in the responses  of terminal and sub terminal; others  grow best from basal cuttings with tissue s that are more mature; there are also plants. Which root more readily from heel and mallet cuttings in which second year wood is included. Grape and certain plums grow readily by means of truncheon which consist of wood that is several years old. It has been shown that hardwood grape cutting taken from the middle and basal region of a stem normally better and produce more vinous plants than those from near the terminal; they possess more carbohydrates and less nitrogen than stem tips.
Callusing :
Callus formation at the basal end of the cutting was at one time considered it be a vital factor in the rooting of hardwood cuttings. More recently it has been accepted that it does not play an important part in root formation. Some few cases have been observed where roots originated in the callus tissue, but that is uncommon. Callus formation may be of benefit is cuttings that end of the cutting and preventing decay. Callused cuttings also respond more readily to chemicals used to aid in root formation than those not callused.  
Etiolation  :
Parts of shoots not containing chlorophyll are  said to be etiolated, and this condition is regarded as being favorable to root formation. Some investigators have attributed better  rooting to the formation of an hypodermics, as in roots Etiolated may be produced by wrapping stems with tape or by covering  with soil. The exclusion of light causes chlorophyll to dapperer. In some cases shoots are caused to develop in darkens, by mounding  with soil: chlorophyll never develops. Stems arising from below the ground, as in mound or continuous leverage, are etiolated.

Hardwood Cuttings

Semi hardwood Cuttings are succulent and tender, for this reason it is important that they be handled so as to prevent wilting after they are cut and before they are planet d. The presence of leaves causes a high rate of transpiration, which makes this difficult. Best results may be secured by cutting Best results may be secured by cutting them during a cool part of the day, preferably in the  early morning, while the material is turgid. They should then be wrapped in moist cloth or moss until planted. Such cuttings are usually started in specialty prepared beds in a  greenhouse, hotbed or cold framer,some such as blueberry, are sometimes started out doors in special beds.
In addition to cool temperature, shade, and high humidity, which are essential factors for good results with semi hardwood cuttings, bottom heat may also be supplied in order to provide more desirable conditions for rooting. Manure is frequently used for this purpose, or the beds may be heated with flues, hot water, or electric heating elements.Shade may be provided by stretching domestic cloth at a height of 3to4 feet above the bed, of the glass of the greenhouse may be sprayed with lime whitewash to provide the same effect.On a small scale, cuttings may be planted in shallow boxes or flats placed in a shaded location. The cuttings and adjacent areas are sprayed with a water several times a day to keep the cuttings from wilting.

Hardwood Cuttings :
These are made from a wide variety of plants, including deciduous types, conifers, and broad-leaved evergreens.Cuttings of deciduous plants are taken during a the dormant season. Those of some plants are taken in the fall, packed in moist insulating material,. and stored at a temperature of 40 Degree F . These cuttings are usually placed in the bed about midwinter. While in storage they may have formed callus at each end this however in is not essential to routing. Instead of the procedure just outlined cuttings of some deciduous plants are taken and planted in later winter, shorty before they would normally resume growth.

Bulbs:

Bulbs:
Most bulbs are subterranean. Some, However are borne above the ground.

Sutructure:
A abulb is a modified stem in which the central axis is vertical and much shortened, perhaps to ⅓ inch. The inter nodes and nodes are not easily distinguishable. the central axis has a terminal growing point and axillary buds. This would be expected since it is a modified, vertically compressed stem.A bulbs is comparable in structure to an ordinary bud which has the embryonic parts to produce a stem and also to cabbage head in which the central axis, nodes, int erodes, terminal growing point, leaves, and axillary buds are clearly evident. The fleshy modified leaves are closely oppressed. In some bulbs the modified leaves are continuous around the axis, forming a series of layers. In cross section these layers appear as concentric ring, as may observed in the onion. Bulbs of this type are known as layered or tunicate. In the other bulbs the scales are not continuous but are rather narrow and fleshy, they many be removed singly form the outer edges of the bulb. they are known as scaly bulbs, and lilies are the most important members of this groupx

Growth Cycle:
When bulbs are plated, the following growth processes are likely to occur, adventive roots develop from the4 base of the central axis, growth of the central stem at its terminal produces more leaves in the interior of the bulb, the bases of these leaves become additional layers or scales, under favorable conditions, a flower stalk is produced by the terminal growth and elongtion of the central axis, may grow and produce other new bulbs, with all the characteristics of the mohter bulb. These provide a means whereby bulbs may be incresed in numbers. The narcissus group of bulbs which includes daffodils and jonquils, comprises a group of very useful and popular flowers. The normal cycle of reproduction of the narcissus requires a period of 3 years.

The mother bulbs, as they reach maximum size, develop buds in the axis of the layers. These buds, still attched to the central stem, continue to develop, forming daughter bulds, or slasbs, which may be separated easily form the mother bulbs at the end of the growing season. These, separated and replanted each year for 3 years, become successfully larger until flower stalks are produced and the cycle of development is Complete.

In certain kin of layered bulbs the mother bulb is depleted each season of growth, and bulbs for further propagation are derived entirely from those that from from axillary buds. The tulip is an example of the bulb of this type. The formation of a large number of adventive bulblets can be stimulated in hyacinth bulbs by cutting in the basal portion of the mother bulbs to remove the entire basal planet, or cutting across the base deep enough to extend though the growing point.
The lily is the most important of the several different methods by which it can be successfully propagated.A large bulb will have from 75 to 100 scales. The when detached from the mother bulb and planted under suitable condition of temperature and moisture, will develop small bulblets on the inner, or concave, sides. They arise from adventious buds. The are separated from the scales in due time and when grown under suitable conditions, will be from 3 to 4 years. Stems of some species will produce a large number of new bulblets. They are pulled from the old bulbs and heeled in shortly after the flowers have opened. In a period of 35 to 40 days. small bullets will have formed on the base of the stem. Their origin is largely from adventitious buds. These may be removed and plnted singly, or the entires stem withe the bulbets intact may be planted horizontally to provide increased growth of the small bulbs. Vuttings of hte stems may also be made, withe three or four leaves intact, or individual leaf cuttings may also be made, with hell s or mallets of the stem. In either case, bulblets are formed from axillary buds. They are separated and grown until they reach flowering size as indicate above.

Aerial bulbils are formed by several species of lilies. They occur in the axils of the upper leaves and may be removed soon after the flowering period. The bulbis may be set in beds and allowed to grow for 2 years, which time some of them will be producing flowers.

Division of the bulb occurs under nature conditions as a result of growth of asillary buds, and small increses may be obtained by digging the bulbs at intervals of 4 to 5 years for division. In commercial propagation, one of the other methods described will give more satisfactory results.

Seed are produced by almost all the lilies, and this method has the advantage of producing immense numbers of new plants, It also a means of producing new variete4s. The growing of lilies from seed is a delicate undertaking. Seed of some species germinated poorly.

Corms:
A structure very similar to bulbs is the corm, or solid bulb,
Sturcture:
A corm is a modified stem in which the central axis has become short and compact. The entire structure, when dormant, consists of the fleshy central axis. It differs from the true bulbs in that the dormant corm is solid, without layers or scales. In cross or vertical section, the nods and very short inter nodes of a corm ar e clearly evident. Apical buds and some axillary buds are present. At maturity, dried-leaf bases, arising from the various nodes, constitute the thin outer covering.